2. Duplicate and Redundant Publication
3. Conflict of Interests
5- The Duties
6- Creative Commons license
7- Page Charges
8- Copyright without Restrictions
9- Correction & Retraction Policy
9-1- Article Withdrawal
9-6- Article Retractions
9-7- Article Removal
9-8- Article Replacement
11- Privacy Statement
Farname journals are committed to delivering high-quality research results in the fields mentioned in the Aims & Scope pages and related sciences to the world and therefore, all submissions will be peer-reviewed. Farname journals adopt the following statement for guidelines on publication ethics.
Our publication ethics statement is mainly based on the Code of Conduct and Best-Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors (Committee on Publication Ethics, 2011).
Making up data or results and recording or reporting them while pretending they are original.
Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the Research Record.
Deliberate Interference, which may intentionally cause material harm to the research or scholarly work of others, and may include damaging or destroying the property of others, such as research equipment or supplies; disrupting active experiments; or altering or deleting products of research, including data. Avoidance of revealing the side effects of clinical trials.
1-3-1-Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. It ranges from the unreferenced use of others' published and unpublished ideas, including research grant applications, to submission under "new" authorship of a complete paper, sometimes in a different language. It may occur at any stage of planning, research, writing, or publication: it applies to print and electronic versions.
1-3-2-Plagiarism can occur when texts are being cut and pasted without appropriate attribution.
1-3-3-Using others' published ideas is allowed if Appropriate attribution and citation should be considered using figures, charts, questionnaires, or texts. In the case of using or paraphrasing texts or ideas, citation is necessary.
NOTE: Self-plagiarism should be avoided.
1-4-All researchers are responsible for reporting any conduct they believe in good faith, which is misconduct to the relevant institutional authority.
1-5-Editors-in-Chief have to check manuscripts for any kind of misconduct.
2- Duplicate and Redundant Publication
Notice: If the author(s) decide to submit a paper that is already submitted, they must cancel the first submission and then submit the manuscript elsewhere. This ought to be done before the paper is accepted.
2-2-If part of a contribution that an author wishes to submit has appeared or will appear elsewhere; the author must specify the details in the covering letter accompanying the submission.
Notice: Using some parts of the methodology is allowed due to citation.
2-3-Simoltaneus submitting the translated version of a manuscript already submitted in another journal is allowed if the Editors-in-Chief are aware of the situation.
3-2-Any conflict of interests must be declared in the text or as a footnote.
This Journal Uses the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest to generate a disclosure statement for your manuscript.
NOTE: No financial contract should ban researchers from declaring a conflict of interests.
3-3-Author(s) should announce their financial resources.
Notice: In the biomedical sciences, editors should consider only publishing information and images from individual participants where the authors have obtained the individual's free prior informed consent.
Notice: In case obtaining written consent is not possible, the local committee of publication ethics should decide whether or not to publish the confidential information.
NOTE: To publish the general records, no permission is needed.
4-2-Editors, authors, and reviewers are required to keep confidential all details of the editorial and peer review process on submitted manuscripts. Unless otherwise declared as a part of open peer review, the peer review process is confidential and conducted anonymously; reviewers' identities are not released. Reviewers must maintain the confidentiality of manuscripts.
Authorship is based on the following four criteria:
Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work;
Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content;
Final approval of the version to be published;
Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
In addition to being accountable for the parts of the work he or she has done, an author should be able to identify which co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. In addition, authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors.
The individuals who conduct the work are responsible for identifying who meets these criteria and ideally should do so when planning the work, making modifications as appropriate as the work progresses.
When a large multi-author group has conducted the work, the group ideally should decide who will be an author before the work is started and confirm who is an author before submitting the manuscript for publication. All members of the group named as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, including approval of the final manuscript, and they should be able to take public responsibility for the work and should have full confidence in the accuracy and integrity of the work of other group authors.
Authorship disputes if they cannot be resolved amongst authors, should be brought up to the relevant institutional authority.
Any further contribution details (e.g., equal contribution) must be included in the contributors or acknowledgment sections at the end of the article.
The corresponding author is the one who takes primary responsibility for communication with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process, and typically ensures that all the journal's administrative requirements, such as providing details of authorship, ethics committee approval, clinical trial registration documentation, and gathering conflict of interest forms and statements, are properly completed, although these duties may be delegated to one or more co-authors.
To name the institutions or organizations not contributing to the process of the research is against the publication ethics.
When the journal gets suspicious whether there is a ghostwriter or not, documents must be asked from the corresponding author. The corresponding author must provide the documents needed and if he or she fails, not only the manuscript will not be published or if published will be retracted, but also the matter will be brought up to the authorities.
5-1-2-1- Reporting Standards
Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.
5-1-2-2- Data Access and Retention
Authors may be asked to provide the research data supporting their paper for editorial review and/or to comply with the open data requirements of the journal. Authors should be prepared to provide public access to such data, if practicable, and should be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable number of years after publication. Authors may refer to their journal's Guide for Authors for further details.
5-1-2-3- Hazards or Human or Animal Subjects
If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the author must clearly identify these in the manuscript.
If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the manuscript contains a statement that all procedures were performed in compliance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines and that the appropriate institutional committee(s) have approved them. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.
5-1-2-4- Clinical Trial Transparency
We support clinical trials transparency. All the information must be declared clearly and confidentiality should be considered seriously.
5-1-2-5- Notification of Fundamental Errors
When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in their own published work, it is the author's obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper if deemed necessary by the editor. If the editor or the publisher learns from a third party that a published work contains an error, it is the obligation of the author to cooperate with the editor, including providing evidence to the editor where requested.
5-1-2-6- Image Integrity
It is not acceptable to enhance, obscure, move, remove, or introduce a specific feature within an image. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Manipulating images for improved clarity is accepted, but manipulation for other purposes could be seen as scientific ethical abuse and will be dealt with accordingly.
The editor of a peer-reviewed journal is responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published, often working in conjunction with the relevant society (for society-owned or sponsored journals). The validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers must always drive such decisions. The editor may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers (or society officers) in making this decision.
5-2-2- Peer review
The editor shall ensure that the peer-review process is fair, unbiased, and timely. Research articles must typically be reviewed by at least two external and independent reviewers, and where necessary the editor should seek additional opinions.
The editor shall select reviewers who have suitable expertise in the relevant field and shall follow best practices in avoiding the selection of fraudulent peer reviewers. The editor shall review all disclosures of potential conflicts of interest and suggestions for self-citation made by reviewers in order to determine whether there is any potential for bias.
5-2-3- Fair play
An editor should evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.
The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript, the corresponding author, reviewers, and potential reviewers.
5-2-5- Conflicts of Interest
Any potential editorial conflicts of interest should be declared to the publisher in writing prior to the appointment of the editor, and then updated if and when new conflicts arise. The publisher may publish such declarations in the journal.
The editor must not be involved in decisions about papers which s/he has written him/herself or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Further, any such submission must be subject to all of the journal's usual procedures, peer review must be handled independently of the relevant author/editor and their research groups, and there must be a clear statement to this effect on any such paper that is published.
5-2-6- Involvement and Cooperation in Investigations
An editor should take reasonably responsive measures when ethical complaints have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper, in conjunction with the publisher (or society). Such measures will generally include contacting the author of the manuscript or paper and giving due consideration of the respective complaint or claims made, but may also include further communications to the relevant institutions and research bodies, and if the complaint is upheld, the publication of a correction, retraction, expression of concern, or other note, as may be relevant. Every reported act of unethical publishing behavior must be looked into, even if it is discovered years after publication.
5-2-7- Vigilance over the Published Record
The editor should work to safeguard the integrity of the published record by reviewing and assessing reported or suspected misconduct (research, publication, reviewer and editorial), in conjunction with the publisher (or society).
Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper. Peer review is an essential component of formal scholarly communication and lies at the heart of the scientific method.
Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.
Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.
5-3-4- Standards of Objectivity
Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.
The submitted papers are assumed to contain no proprietary material unprotected by patent or patent application; responsibility for technical content and for protection of proprietary material rests solely with the author(s) and their organizations and is not the responsibility of the Farname journals or its Editorial Staff. The main (first/corresponding) author is responsible for ensuring that the article has been seen and approved by all the other authors. It is the responsibility of the author to obtain all necessary copyright release permissions for the use of any copyrighted materials in the manuscript prior to the submission.
Upon acceptance of your article, you will receive a copy of the proof file, the content of which you must confirm and submit to the Journal's website along with the signed Copyright Transfer Statement (It must be signed by all the authors).
We check for plagiarism by iThenticate and never tolerate plagiarism, forged data, and falsified data presentation from authors who will be blacklisted from publishing articles in Farname journals.
Farname journals respect intellectual property and aims at protecting and promoting the original work of their authors. Manuscripts containing plagiarized material are against the standards of quality, research, and innovation. Hence, all authors submitting articles to Farname journals are expected to abide by ethical standards and abstain from plagiarism, in any form. In case, an author is found to be suspected of plagiarism in a submitted or published manuscript then, Farname journals shall contact the author (s) to submit his / her (their) explanation within two weeks, which may be forwarded to the Fact-Finding Committee (FFC) constituted for the purpose, for further course of action. If Farname journals do not receive any response from the author within the stipulated time period, then the Director / Dean / Head of the concerned College, Institution or Organization or the Vice-Chancellor of the University to which the author is affiliated shall be contacted to take strict action against the concerned author.
Farname journals shall take serious action against published manuscripts found to contain plagiarism and shall completely remove them from its websites and other third-party websites where the paper is listed and indexed. The moment, any article published in the Farname journal's database is reported to be plagiarized, Farname journals will constitute a Fact-Finding Committee (FFC) to investigate the same. Upon having established that the manuscript is plagiarized from some previously published work, Farname journals shall support the original author and manuscript irrespective of the publisher and may take any or all of the following immediate actions or follow the additional course of actions as recommended by the committee:
A) Farname journals editorial office shall immediately contact the Director / Dean / Head of the concerned College, Institution or Organization or the Vice-Chancellor of the University to which the author(s) is (are) affiliated to take strict action against the concerned author(s).
B) Farname journals shall remove the PDF copy of the published manuscript from the website and disable all links to the full-text articles. The term Plagiarized Manuscript shall be appended to the published manuscript title.
C) Farname journals shall disable the author account with the journal and reject all future submissions from the author for a period of 03 / 05 / 10 years or even ban the authors permanently.
D) Any other course of action, as recommended by the Committee or as deemed fit for the instant case or as decided by the Editorial Board, from time to time
Authors can withdraw their manuscripts before being published in Farname's journal group (before a DOI is issued). To do so, the corresponding author has to sign fill a form explaining the reason why the manuscript is being withdrawn. Manuscripts are withdrawn by the Farname group or the journal's editorial team, in case of multiple or simultaneous submission, fraudulent use of data, false claim of authorship, unvalidated findings, and unethical research practices.
Committed to the scientific world, the Farname journals take maximum care in order to publish error-free works. However, if there are any unintentional errors found by the readers, we are ready to publish the rebuttal from the readers (all claims must be sent via the official email of the journal; also, every claim will be checked by the Editor-in-Chief and the editorial team). Though the Editor-in-Chief will make the final decision to approve or reject a rebuttal. In Farname group, we encourage our readers to inform us in case of observing any errors in different types of articles published.
Farname journals are committed to correcting any errors in their published work. Hence, errors such as typographical errors, units, data, errors in figures, numbers given in tables, legends, captions, proofing errors are not the subject of editing and the authors are responsible for it. However, the authors and the reader are to inform the journal of possible errors. The Editor-in-Chief will make the final decision.
Committed to the scientific accuracy of published work, Farname journals ask the original authors of published articles to submit Corrigenda in case of compromising the accuracy and reproducibility of the paper. To do so, the author(s) must contact the Editor-in-Chief via their email (the one mentioned in the journal website), as the Editor-in-Chief is the one to make the final decision. The corrigenda will be published as a "Letter to Editor" inclusive of "title", "volume", "issue", "page number" and the error and the way it affects the article. The new submission will be the subject of peer review.
Subsequent to the publication of papers Addenda are added after being peer-reviewed if the journal's editorial team and the Editor-in-Chief feel is required. The Addenda are published in case of any demand for clarification.
9-6- Article Retractions
Farname journals are open to any kind of criticism and encourage their readers to inform the journal of the possible flaws in the published works. Cases of outdated conclusions, plagiarism, data fabrication, scientific misconduct and such will result in retraction (once the reliable and eligible information regarding the case is discovered).
Hence, all authors submitting articles to Farname journal are expected to abide by ethical standards and abstain from unethical affairs, in any form. In case, an author is found to be suspected of any of the subjects called unethical by COPE, in a submitted or published manuscript then, Farname group shall contact the author (s) to submit his / her (their) explanation within two weeks, which may be forwarded to the Fact-Finding Committee (FFC) constituted for the purpose, for further course of action (however, the explanation cannot change the retraction decision). In case of receiving no response from the author within the stipulated time period, then the Director / Dean / Head of the concerned College, Institution, or Organization or the Vice-Chancellor of the University to which the author is affiliated shall be contacted offering all the evidence in this matter.
Farname group is committed to taking serious action against any flawed publications and shall completely remove them from the journal websites and other third-party websites where the paper is listed and indexed. Upon having established that the manuscript is plagiarized from some previously published work, Farname group shall support the original author and manuscript irrespective of the publisher and may take any or all of the following immediate actions or follow the additional course of actions as recommended by the committee:
2. Farname journals shall remove the PDF copy of the published manuscript from the website and disable all links to the full-text articles. The term Plagiarized Manuscript shall be appended to the published manuscript title.
3. Farname group shall disable the author account with the journals and reject all future submissions from the author for a period of 03 / 05 / 10 years or even ban the authors permanently.
4. Farname journals may also display the list of such authors along with their full contact details on the Farname journal's website.
5. Any other course of action, as recommended by the Committee or as deemed fit for the instant case or as decided by the Editorial Board, from time to time.
9-7- Article Removal
In cases of slanderous content, copyright or any such legal issues the editorial team and the Editor-in-Chief have the right to remove the article from the journal website. Thereupon, a note will be demonstrated on the page stating why the article is issued to be removed. The Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the final decision.
Suspected fabricated data in a submitted manuscript
Suspected fabricated data in a published article
For more information on image manipulation see also the following useful links:CSE's White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications, 3.4 Digital Images and Misconduct
What's in a picture? The temptation of image manipulation
ORI "Forensic Images Samples" for the quick examination of scientific images
Informed Consent | American Medical Association
Farname group strictly follows the principles of the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983, regarding any type of research involving human subjects, including research on identifiable human material and data.
At Farname journals, each paragraph of this declaration is applied (no exceptions are issued). All authors have to obtain the necessary consent before submitting to Farname journals.
16-1. Medical Disclaimer
The opinions expressed in our journals are those of the authors and contributors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Association of Physicians, the editors, the editorial board, Farname Inc, or the organization to which the authors are affiliated.
16.2. Drug Disclaimer
The mention of trade names, commercial products or organizations, and the inclusion of advertisements in the journal does not imply endorsement by the Association of Physicians, the editors, the editorial board, Farname Inc or the organization to which the authors are affiliated. The editors and publishers have taken all reasonable precautions to verify drug names and doses, the results of experimental work, and clinical findings published in the journal. The ultimate responsibility for the use and dosage of drugs mentioned in Farname Journals and in the interpretation of published material lies with the medical practitioner, and the editors and publishers cannot accept liability for damages arising from any errors or omissions in the journal. Please inform the editors of any errors.
- ICMJE Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals
- CONSORT standards for randomized trials
- The STM trade Association International Ethical Principles for Scholarly Publication
- COPE Codes of Conduct
- Elsevier policy on the permanence of the scientific record
- Elsevier policy on editorial independence
- Elsevier educational content on Ethics in Research & Publication
- World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) Best Practice
- Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Guidelines on Editors in Chief sharing
- Elsevier’s Publishing Ethics Resource Kit for Editors
- World Medical Association (WMA) Helsinki Declaration for Medical Research in Human Subject
- Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) Guidelines
- The U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986
- EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments
- U.S. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
- Elsevier policy on patient consent
- WAME Editorial statement on COI
- Rossner and Yamada, 2004. The Journal of Cell Biology, 166, 11-15.
- International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects
- International ethical guidelines for epidemiological studies
- World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki
- European Group on Ethics
- Directive 2001/20/ec of the European Parliament and of the Council
- Council of Europe (Oviedo Convention - Protocol on biomedical research)
- Nuffield Council: The ethics of research related to healthcare in developing countries